The horizontal orbital stretch wrapper manufacturer

Horizontal orbital stretch wrapper/wrapping machine is designed for the straight objects. It has a proven record of success in many industries such as profiled product, tubular product and plank stuff etc. The horizontal machine is used for the steel pipe packaging, Aluminum section packaging, Window &door wrapping, Rod packaging, panel packaging…

That is with highly speed and efficient equipment for your packaging

solution. The Horizontal orbital wrapping machine installed by Fhope are fully manufactured and designed within one of many a few manufacturing sites. The company’s authority in the markets is launched on scientific belongings: knowledge of wrapping, the complementarily of motion, the opportunity to manage turnkey finishes of series adding capabilities like stacking, conveying, wrapping, strapping, the ability to suggest options in any way generation rates of speed lastly admiration for that items and the quality of the finished product packaging.


Pipe Horizontal Orbital Wrapping Machine

FHOPE-F Series

Rod Horizontal Orbital Wrapping Machine

FHOPE-G Series

Aluminum Horizontal Orbital wrapping Machine

FHOPE-H Series

Profile Horizontal Orbital Wrapping Machine

FHOPE-E series

Spiral Orbital Wrapper

FHOPE-F Series

Horizontal Ring stretch wrapper

FHOPE-F Series

Horizontal stretch wrapping machine

FHOPE-F Series

Horizontal orbital stretch wrapper

1.Protect the package and eliminate damage

Using the Horizontal orbital stretch wrapper and ring type wrapping machine, LLDPE stretch film is extended as it is applied and packing requirement. Once stretch film is around the package, it contracts and enclose just like a rubber band, to keep the compression and stake package together. It prevents harm to colored, highly polished surfaces requirement which safeguard the items in transition. Avoid the requirement of interleaved buffer materials.

2.Material and Reduce Packing Costs.

Horizontal orbital stretch wrapper/wrapping machines can eliminate bulky, expensive packing material in wrapping like foam, tape, shrinking wrapping, paper Knit belt, string, pet belt. The highly packing speed saves you time and labor costs. All above minimize your packaging cost.

3.Uniteze length wrapping available.

The horizontal orbital stretch wrapping machine is ideal for long objects such as unitizing pipe, tube, profile, lumber, door, window, board, section,MDF wood,MDF board, textile rolls… No limited with one or more layer of stretch film or any other packing material. Over wrapping rate is adjustable according different width. You packages are protected from dust, moisture, damage。

We can provide the best horizontal orbital stretch wrapper/stretch wrapping machine solution for your needs, no matter how small or large the amount of supplies to be wrapped. The Go across Wrap bale, horizontal orbital wrapper/wrapping machine are appropriate for all commercial rectangular balers, door, profile, pipe bundle, board… Because of the modular structure, the Go across Cover covering collections can easily cover a variety of bale styles and volumes. Automatic horizontal orbital stretch wrapper is able to connect with infeed conveyor for automatic loading. Both manually operation or be a part of internal production line are available. The package load is automatically transferred throughout the wrapping station where expand film is used. Our persistence for customer service and extended service durability in our horizontal stretch wrappers and orbital stretch wrappers continues to be proven by lots of loyal clients sticking around on the very long time.


We are offering automatic wrapper with different ring size for package with different OD as long as customize solution per your packaging goal. Following are some orbital stretch wrappers designed for wrap load Package OD.

orbital stretch wrapepr& spiral wrapping machinestretch film for orbital wrapper  conveyor of orbital wrap machine

      Different size machine                             Different packing material                              Different conveyor

film carriage of orbital stretch wrap machine

       Film Carriage

Videos for reference:

 orbital stretch wrapper  

For long shape small objects packaging, such as: Pipe bundle, tube, profile, section, timber wooden…

There are several type economic stretch wrapper which is able do do high speed stretch automatic s packaging for your products. And it is able connects to your conveyor for automatic online packaging.

 door orbital wrapping machine

Automatic stretch wrapper For Wide object packaging, such as:  Door, window, panel, board, sheet…

There are different device and designing special for features of your package, such as press down device for holding the light package, consistence tension control make machine both for small and big package…

For heavy objects packaging: Such as steel tube, steel rod, aluminum profile, motor, reel…

The conveyor is changeable per different weigh and package. Roller conveyor covered with PU for package surface protection.

Fork man loading position for easy handling. Different packaging material available for durable packaging requirement.

 orbital stretch wrapper for panel

For wide&height objects packaging, such as, pallet, panels, doors… There are bubble film covering device (option) for full size packaging requirement. Au

automatic sealer for cutting the film, even paper…

The article copy from :

info stretch wrapping machine

continuous stretch wrapping machine

Hot forming continuous stretch wrapping machine
Product type: Fhopepack
Product introduction: the horizontal stretch wrapper machine is full automatic molding, vacuum sealer, suitable for all kinds of food, meat, seafood, fruits and vegetables, pickles, chilled meat, medical products, hardware equipment for vacuum, inflatable packaging machine, fitted.
A product characteristic:
(1) the machine adopts hard aluminum alloy and stainless steel materials, greatly improving the corrosion resistance of the equipment.
(2) using combined die, the replacement is convenient, the use of a horizontal stretch wrapper machine, mould with water cooling system.
(3) with stable performance, long service life of the SMC pneumatic components.
(4) the selection of extreme high vacuum degree, excellent performance in Germany BUSCH vacuum pump.
(5) the selection of reliable performance, convenient operation of the OMRON servo motor, screen and Schneider electric controlled by PLC and touch.
(6) using photoelectric tracking, can choose the color cover film or optical film packaging, reduce cost, improve product quality.
(7) can be based on customer requirements, equipped with automatic coding horizontal stretch wrapper system.
(8) the use of special stainless steel clamping chain, soft membrane stretch forming is suitable for all kinds of thickness, special packaging.
(9) using crosscut slitting system advanced, replacing operation is convenient, with scrap recycling horizontal stretch wrapper system, keep the environment clean.
(10) can achieve double horizontal stretch wrapper packing, can improve production efficiency and reduce cost.
Two, the technical parameters:
(1) power supply: 380? V/AC? 50HZ three-phase neutral
(2) the complete machine power: KW 13?
(3) machine size: 4900 x 1100 x 1930mm
(4) weight: 1.5Ton
(5) film width: 420mm
(6) on the film width: 396mm
(7) there are 3 kinds of sealing mode, choose according to the actual situation: only sealing, vacuum, inflatable


the whole packaging machine

Fhope Packaging machine, suitable for biscuits, Mi Tong, snow cake, egg yolk pie, chocolate, bread, instant noodles, moon cakes, drugs, daily necessities, industrial parts, cartons or pallets and other packaging various kinds of regular objects.

Two, product characteristics:

1, the sterilization machine for conveying type sterilization equipment, has strong sterilization ability. The product can be a thorough disinfection of the items, is to enter the disinfection equipment aseptic workshop preferred cans.

2, the use of intensification of mercury vapor lower and emit ultraviolet light, the photon energy is absorbed by the DNA base, make the virus killed immediately, which played the purpose of sterilization.

3, combined with our other products can form an automatic packaging line channel is: empty cans into management – > automatic tank turntable pot turning – > empty cans ultraviolet sterilization – > > > finished filling tank – > packing gland

4, the equipment all adopt 304 stainless steel manufacturing, reasonable layout, cleaning and convenient.

5, the machine stable and durable, low maintenance cost.

A, technical parameters:



Film width


The bag length


Bag width


Packing speed

40-300 packages / min (according to the artificial proficiency)

Electric source

220V 50-60HZ

The complete machine power


The volume of the whole machine

3770 (L) x670 (W) x1450 (H)

Weight of equipment



Can be equipped with pneumatic stretch packaging mahcine

Two, product characteristics:

1 double frequency converter control, bag length cutting, without air conditioning go, step in place, saving time and film.

The 2 man machine interface, convenient parameter setting.

3 fault self diagnosis function, clear failure display.

4 marked sensitivity photoelectric eye tracking, digital input cut position, which can make the sealing position be more accurate.

5 separate PID temperature control, suitable for various packing materials.

The 6 positioning stop function, non stick knives, do not waste envelope.

Simple 7 drive system, the work is more reliable, the maintenance is more convenient.

8 all the controls are achieved by software, convenient for function adjusting and upgrading.


gantry cnc slicing coil wrapping machines.

Automatic decoiler: 5t,6t,10t,15t….. consumer designed

Guidelines of hydraulic decoiler:

(1) Form of decoiler : Hydraulic Pressure and electrical release

(2) Electric motor strength of decoiler : 3KW

(3) Motor unit power of Hydraulic station : 2.2KW

(4) Within dia of coil : 500-530mm

(5) Exterior dia of coil : 1300mm

(6) Thickness of coil : 1250-1300mm

(7) Excess weight of coil : 5T,6T,10t,15t

(8) Speed of decoiling : -20m/min

(9) Strain of hydraulic method : 10Mpa

(10) Method of manage : Multiple-levels photoelectric intelligent monitoring

(11) Describe measurement of decoiler : 3200mm×1250mm×1800mm

(12) Voltage of manage : 3P/440V/60HZ


? Q: Can you make the machine according to my design or prototype?

A: Yes. We now have a seasoned team for working out the most appropriate design and production arrange for the machine that you are going to guide with us

? Q: What should you know to ensure I may have a machine plan on your part for the technical individuals reference point?

A: Properly, because the basic needed info for planning a coil wrapping machine plan, pls see under particulars

For that slitting coil packaging line and cut-to-duration: the content kind(CR, HR, PPGI and HDGI SS), thickness and width variety, coil bodyweight, decreasing pace, slitting phone numbers(exclusively for slitting line), stainlesss steel plate needed reducing span(exclusively for cut-to-size line)

For the C,Z,W roof and Profile/wall panel roll creating machine: the information thickness array, width variety and also the account attracting are essential(the number of roll developing holds essential are depended on the profile attracting)

For that Heating and air conditioning machine as well as the steel tube machine: the wall size variety and also the size variety of the tube

In order to save your procurement budget, Pls also provide us with your special requirements for the machine, for example, you want the machine to be a full-automatic one or semi-automatic one.

? Q: How can we be confident that you may provide us quality machine with spares?

A: We usually require our customers to send the technical people to our factory for checking the quality of the coil wrapping machine before shipping. Given that the purchaser generally is not really really knowledgeable about the coil wrapping machine constructing and debugging, so that we deliver the experts on the buyer`s production line for the installation of the coil wrapping machine provided the Price Phrase was conclude on ALL IN schedule. In additon, We offer our customers with the aftersales-services, its cost-free throughout the warranty time period


Pipe Auto Measuring Machine

Plate Edge Milling Machine

Thin & aeavy wall thickness plate cutting.

Straightforward Operation & Maintenance.

Toll Spindle is equipped with a powerful DC motor.

Plate Edge Pre Bending Machine

Mold can easily replaced.

(Short size change time of 30minutes)

One mald can allow for three dimeters of size bending.

Pre bender operation is available in the edge milling control shelter. (pre bender operator is not required)

Press Bending Machine

Power Energy savings can be made by adjusting the number of cylinders depending on plate thickness.(Total power: 700KW)

Each press cylinder is controlled independently so that deflection is eliminated.

Continuous Root Welding machine

Auto Seam Tracking System.

Welding speed max : 6.5m/min

Internal & External Welding Machine

Auto Tracking greatly reduces weld defects.

Servo motor & rack-pinion gearing are used to ensure weld car driving is consistent & stable.

Booth bar type earth cable is used to prevent welding defects.

Pipe Long Seam Milling Machine

Auto Seam Tracking.

Milling process is unique in eliminating the generation of any noise & dust during gauging.

weld defects are also reduced by seam cutting.

Pipe 4-Way Sizing Machine

Pipe & Tube End Facing Machine

Capacity : O.D 200mm ~ 2000mm

Hydrostatic Machine

X-Ray Test Machine

Pipe Auto Measuring Machine

Pipe outer diameter & roundness check.

Pipe weld beat width & height check.

Weld bead misatch (offset) check.

Overall straightness check.

Pipe length & bevel angle check.

Pipe weight check.

Applied Sensors provide fully automatic machine measuring.


style orbital stretch wrapper packaging in the packing line

It is a great-for-you breakfast time but, depending on how you will make it, it could be bland and take more time to make than you routinely have time for each day.

A whole new orbital stretch wrapper packaging file format for that group has resolved these two issues. The newest Mother nature Valley Bistro Glass from Common Mills was created to make very hot, great tasting oat meal in just minutes employing a Keurig making system.

“I have a Keurig and this would make my breakfast way quicker in the morning.” And one dad says, “My kids could make this and have breakfast ready to go for the entire family.” “That’s great, as one female consumer says in a video on the Nature Valley website. Oat meal at the touch of the mouse,” claims an additional lady.

The Minnesota foods processor comes after inside the footsteps of Campbell Soups, which released soups in K-mug style orbital stretch wrapper packaging inside the tumble of 2013 for broth. Unlike Campbell, though, which partnered with K-Cup owner Green Mountain Coffee Roasters Inc., General Mills opted to use generic brewing-cup orbital stretch wrapper packaging.

Not to be upstaged, Eco-friendly Hill (which altered its title to Keurig Eco-friendly Mountain peak in Mar 2014), persists its growth via significant relationships. Declared Sept. , Honest Herbal tea, the nation’s No.1 organic and natural bottled iced tea, would be the initially brand name through the Coca Cola Co. available in K-Cup packs.3 and 2014

Keurig web revenue greater 33Percent in 2013 12 months-above-year, following an 82% increase y-o-y in 2012.

Generic brewing cups for use in Keurig systems have also seen exponential growth in recent years, according to one machinery manufacturer involved in orbital stretch wrapper packaging products in private-label cups, Telesonic orbital stretch wrapper packaging.


Speed orbital stretch wrapper packaging

Tempo orbital stretch wrapper packaging, powered by Expert Mach, is offering its adaptable, substantial-pace Pharma-collection Design 400CE jar unscrambling method at Pack Expo International, December 2-5, Booth 2134, South Hall.

The Pharma-collection 400CE deals with numerous bottle formats and sizes for liquids and tablets at series rates of speed of 300 per minute. Regular jar formats include rounds, squares, jars, ovals and rectangles, with choices for customized containers.

The small, stainless steel-metallic Pharma-line 400CE, offers business major tool-significantly less changeover in under 10 mins, a significant thing to consider for most pharmaceutical, nutritional, and nutraceutical packagers which usually run multiple SKUs and merchandise configurations. Simple, user friendly design provides ground stage entry and finish viewing of machine procedures. Alternatives feature an incorporated inline ionized air flow wash and concurrent vacuum method.

“Today’s pharmaceutical lines are operating at increased rates than ever,” said Glenn Kelley, Speed orbital stretch wrapper packaging’s V . P . of Product sales. By aligning our machines capacity with our customer demands for increasing production, “Our Pharma-line 400CE offers real value to customers. Speed persists to give the most efficient and many able jar unscrambling methods to the prescription drug business.”

Fowler Items, powered by Professional Mach, Inc., released nowadays its greatest speed inspection/rejection system for capping applications – the system can limit and inspect a lot more than 900 containers a minute. Fowler’s unique approach to failsafe inspection/rejection is made for prescription drug, private treatment, and food companies looking for verification that every cover is correctly applied.

In Fowler’s approach to inspection/rejection, bottles failing inspection are shunted off to a reject lane before they leave the capping machine. This assures that this bottle discovered to get rejected is totally the bottle that is certainly rejected. Moreover, Fowler’s unique design gently diverts a denied container away and off to a reject lane in order that the container continues to be up-right and does not drip its elements contaminating the orbital stretch wrapper packaging collection.

“Because the program is integral to the capping machine, we could completely guarantee consumers that this correct jar continues to be denied,” stated Randy Uebler, V . P . And General Manager for Fowler. “The container known as failing one or more high quality problems continues to be in good management all the way from its station in the machine towards the refuse lane.”

The failsafe Fowler method rejects bottles for incorrect torque, missing out on limit, higher cover, and/or cocked cap. If the under-cap liners are missing, the system also rejects bottles. Before it is allowed to leave the machine, every bottle must pass these quality checks.

Electronic torque manage, machine perspective, as well as other sensor systems are employed within the assessment part of the method. With failsafe reasoning, including the indicator computer hardware is watched for correct functionality. Using failsafe logic, all bottles are tagged as “faulty” entering the machine and each inspection criteria must be satisfied as “good” before the system will allow a bottle to be discharged from the machine to the next downstream operation.

The discovery in pace is caused by utilizing condition-of-the-artwork linear engines for high speed, accurate motion actuation of the multi-finger refusal part of the program. The linear engine actuators effortlessly manual the container for the refusal lane without having keeping up or else disturbing the container following in series. “This incorporation of linear engines in place of previously employed pneumatic cylinders has permitted us to arrive at a whole new degree of efficiency in speed and accuracy,” claims Uebler.


motion problem resistant stretch

powered by Expert Mach, will showcase a built-in high speed orbital stretch wrapper packaging solution that features a stretch overwrapper along with a weigh-cost labeler at Pack Expo 2014, December 2-5, in Chicago. Ossid may also exhibit personal machines, like the Integrity horizontal form-fill-close off machine and 500im leak resistant stretch overwrapper. (Ossid Pack Expo Presentation area # N-5313)

“Pack Expo attendees will see that Ossid can offer a 1-cease-go shopping solution to have an incorporated orbital stretch wrapper packaging series which provides durability, reliability and performance and creation info integration,” stated Jason Angel, V . P . of Revenue. “The machines displayed deliver proven solutions formeat and poultry, and dairy products environments.”

Machines inside the Integrated Series

The 500Si substantial-pace stretch overwrapper produces tightly covered, PVC circumstance all set orbital stretch wrapper packaging at rates as high as 120 trays per minute. An user-friendly HMI ensures ease of procedure and quick, tool-totally free changeover between package deal dimensions is simple and fast. The wide open stainless steel body and other construction aspects are suitable for the harsh surroundings of poultry and meat orbital stretch wrapper packaging services. The 500Si features a comparatively little footprint and is great for area-constrained surroundings.

The 1500 range weigh cost labeler increases creation with flexible and accurate label placement. The 1500 range is graded at as much as 120 containers a minute. The unit comes with each regular options and features. A number of info acquisition capabilities can be found, like the productivity enhancing Ossid General Gear Usefulness (OEE) device.

The CS5000 is surely an NTEP Certified case range that weighs about instances with all the company’s latest threshold variety of /- .02lbs (.01kg). The unit’s Microsoft SQL Data base provides easy data integration and data exchange. Ethernet community functionality facilitates automated order handling and tracking, distant end user coaching, away-website servicing, software program upgrades, and a lot more.

Personal Machines on Display on the Ossid Booth

The ReliabilityAnd#8482; horizontal develop-load-seal machine provides productivity rates of up to 15 periods a minute. This machine can produce a number of package varieties, which includes adaptable, foil-vacuum, foil and ambient changed environment, and much more. Created for the most challenging clean-straight down surroundings, the Dependability is modular when it comes to giving meats, poultry, and dairy organizations the chance to pick solely those functions most suitable for their functioning. This machine fulfills dairy, meat, USDA and poultry and 3-A sanitary standards.

The 500im irregular action drip resilient stretch over wrapper is made for reddish poultry, pork and meat and provide packers who want a top quality conclusion-close off machine at an entry-level price. The 500im features an open stainless body, a variety of standard functions, as well as a cover rate as high as 35 trays per minute.


machine offers at Pack Expo 2014

powered by Expert Mach, is showing the breadth of its technical features by featuring at Pack Expo two very several types of solutions: Net excess weight filling up modern technology for rapidly and accurately filling up higher viscosity, free of charge-running fluids as well as a hygienic stage filler for dairy and juice goods. (Government Mfg. Pack Expo Presentation space # N-5311)

The innovative Federal internet excess weight solitary station demo filler displayed on the present is designed to fill up an array of sizes and products. Government web bodyweight satisfying technology can be used as orbital stretch wrapper packaging oil items, agricultural chemicals, food, edible oils, sauces, extracts, juice and dairy and pharmaceuticals.

Federal web weight fillers use damped weight tissues with excess protection, which significantly reduces or eliminates the results of shake and original fill up shock. High speed analogue and digital electronics permit every station to be filled by weight or time. These stretch wrapping machines are made with heavy-obligation stainless frames intended for years of support. Explosion evidence options are available. The Federal AcuFillAnd#8482; manage method ensures the best possible satisfying. Ethernet online connectivity gives high speed telecommunications with PLCs and Producing Performance Methods (MES). The overall design intention is substantial uptime, lower spend, convenience, and generations of services.

The 30-device hygienic degree filler in the show is capable of filling and capping 110 one particular-gallon HDPE containers of fresh whole milk or liquid each minute. Federal government hygienic level fillers are in use through the food and beverage business, which includes edible natural oils, salsas, and sauces. This middle of the-dimensions degree satisfying system features E-Collection electronic digital filling valves and inside-external clear-in-place (CIP) and sterilize-in-location (Drink) abilities. The ASME licensed satisfying container could be cleaned out with possibly very hot water or heavy steam. Government fillers are certified to present the 3-An expression for hygienicconstruction and design, and materials.

“While the web bodyweight and hygienic level filler machines are equipped for completely different environments, visitors to the Federal presentation space will discover that every machine units a regular for match, complete, workmanship, and durability we really feel is unequaled in today’s industry,” stated Mike Collins, V . P . of Sales and Marketing for Government. When a customer works with Federal he or she can be assured that it will be a low-risk high-reward capital investment.?. That is “The other point to make?


by buying purportedly uneconomic goods

Fowler Goods, driven by Pro Mach, will present at Pack Expo 2014 the Zalkin VS110 – a next technology two-in-a single capping brain for top quality StelVin Lux aluminium closures. The business is additionally showcasing an 800-for each-second 30-brain turret for applying plastic-type screw caps, a half a dozen-turret machine for using light weight aluminum roll-on closures within the red wine market, and several other limit dealing with and promoting alternatives. (Fowler Items Pack Expo Presentation space # N-5306).

The new Zalkin VS110 screw and seal capping head is a two-in-a single answer that lowers capital investment. This solitary-turret machine does the job of twin turrets or two separate machines and for that reason conserves valuable floor space. The brand new VS110 offers design and style advancements that allow a much more sophisticated hysteresis magnet clutch system to get utilized as opposed to a easy opposite magnet clutch system. The hysteresis clutch gives sleek torque and fast tooless realignment of torque. The VS110 also features a a lot more powerful construction than prior technology solutions.

“While premium StelVin Lux light weight aluminum caps signify a little segment of the complete closure market, we are creating the VS110 the focal point of our Pack Expo presentation space to stimulate chats about innovation and innovation’s influence on procedures,” said John Artman, Vice President of Sales and Marketing for Fowler Products. “This stylish answer perfectly illustrates Zalkin’s leadership on a variety of amounts of development.”

The 30-brain turret in the booth provides a situation in level for sturdy, reliable 800-per-minute continuous thread attach limit application. This turret operates several kinds of screw caps and is found in an extensive variety of sectors. Machines with a similar turrets are available at accelerates to 1200 bottles per minute. Magnet clutch higher-speed capping heads provide for repeatable and trustworthy limit program torque. Tough development guarantees longer lasting performance. These turrets can cater to a variety of container types, including cup, PET, polypropylene, and HDPE. This turret comes with a settable leading weight and good gripping limit chucks.

The 6-mind machine for ROPP capping demonstrates the expertise of Fowler Items and Zalkin within this modern technology. In August, for example, Fowler sponsored the next biennial Software Basic principles for Aluminium Closures (AFAC) convention in Athens, Ga. The purpose of both-time occasion, as well as for delivering a ROPP machine to Pack Expo, would be to promote best practices as well as help expand application knowledge for such premium hats, which are increasing in recognition within the wine and mood sectors. The compact waterfall sorter and atmosphere promoting program in the booth have been designed and manufactured by Fowler to supply innovative options for closure sorting and conveying that provide operational overall flexibility and save floor space.

For more information about Fowler/Zalkin higher-velocity capping machinery and Fowler cover feeding and sorting systems, phone 877-549-3301, and visit the Fowler Products web site,

About Expert Mach

Expert Mach is a leading provider of built-in orbital stretch wrapper packaging and processing products and solutions forbeverage and food, consumer goods, prescription drug, as well as other different organizations. Via numerous brand names, Professional Mach offers product orbital stretch wrapper packaging and processing equipment, PMMI licensed instructors,parts and installation, and repair in Bottling & Capping, Main orbital stretch wrapper packaging, Flexible orbital stretch wrapper packaging, Substance Dealing with, Recognition And Monitoring, and Finish of Series orbital stretch wrapper packaging.

Pro Mach features a different client base, from Fortune 500 organizations to smaller, privately-organised companies around the world, which rely on dependable, adaptable, technically innovative gear and built-in alternatives. Professional Mach is headquartered in close proximity to Cincinnati, Ohio with manufacturing facilities and offices throughout the UnitedCanada and States, and The european union.